Unveiling Climate Change Effect on Health: What You Should Know

As the world wakes up to the ever-increasing impacts of climate change, public health concerns are becoming increasingly alarming. The global community faces numerous health risks from climate change, including heat-related morbidity and mortality, infectious diseases, poor air quality, and mental health issues.

With the Fifth National Climate Assessment (NCA5) shedding light on the severity of these risks, especially for under-resourced communities, it is clear that urgent actions are needed to protect human health in the face of such dramatic environmental changes.

Understanding the effects of climate change on health is essential for promoting better policies and practices to counteract these challenges. It is crucial for governments, health officials, and individuals to work together to ensure the well-being of all, especially for vulnerable populations, who face the brunt of these climate-related health disparities.

climate change
Environment background, save the planet text psd

Key Takeaways

  • Climate change significantly impacts public health, placing enormous strain on healthcare systems worldwide.
  • Heat-related morbidity and mortality rates are on the rise, with the elderly being particularly affected.
  • Infectious diseases are spreading due to changes in environmental conditions, increasing the geographic range of diseases and posing heightened health risks.
  • Air quality degradation from industrial emissions and wildfires exacerbates respiratory diseases and contributes to a host of other health conditions.
  • Vulnerable populations experience the disproportionate effects of climate change on health, intensifying the need for inclusive and equitable healthcare provision.

The Growing Impact of Extreme Weather on Public Health

Extreme weather events pose significant threats to human health, safety, and well-being. With the ever-intensifying effects of climate change and global health crises, understanding the health risks associated with extreme weather is vital to protecting the population.

impact of extreme weather on public health

Heatwaves and Their Direct Health Consequences

According to the Lancet Countdown on Health and Climate Change 2023 report, heat-related deaths among the elderly have increased by 85% from 2013–2022, compared to 1991–2000.

This alarming statistic is inextricably linked to the current 1.14°C increase in global temperatures caused by human-induced climate change.

The report indicates that individuals experienced an average of 86 days of health-threatening high temperatures in recent years, with persistent extreme heat contributing to an 85% rise in heat-related deaths for those over 65 years of age.

Climate change poses a serious and immediate threat to human health, with the elderly being one of the most vulnerable populations when it comes to extreme heat.

As sea levels rise, coastal communities face an increased risk of flooding and water-related illnesses. According to the Lancet Countdown, the spread of water-borne infectious diseases like Vibrio bacteria has accelerated as a result of climate change.

Suitable habitats for Vibrio have increased by 329km each year since 1982, with particularly high threats occurring along European coastlines, where this expansion occurs at a rate of 142km annually. These bacterial infections pose severe health risks, including diarrheal disease and other serious infections.

Extreme Events and Mental Health Challenges

The mental health consequences of extreme events, such as floods, storms, and displacement, cannot be understated. The NCA5 report acknowledges that climate change exacerbates stress and trauma related to these events, with populations like sexual and gender minorities and those with disabilities being particularly vulnerable.

In addition, witnessing and surviving extreme weather events often leads to increased cases of post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental health conditions.

  1. Increased heat-related mortality.
  2. Rising rates of water-related illnesses.
  3. Worsened mental health outcomes.

In summary, the growing impact of extreme weather events on public health demands urgent attention and action. By addressing the health risks associated with climate change, we can better protect our communities and ensure a more sustainable future.

Climate Change and the Spread of Infectious Diseases

Climate change impacts the spread of infectious diseases, increasing risks to human health. The Lancet Countdown report attributes the rise in infectious diseases partly to climate change, with warmer seas expanding areas suitable for Vibrio bacteria, leading to greater risks of illness and death.

Moreover, changes in climatic conditions accelerate the transmission of dengue and other vector-borne diseases.

Spread of infectious diseases related to climate change

Similarly, the Fifth National Climate Assessment (NCA5) highlights the increased geographical range of infectious diseases as a significant health concern resulting from climate change.

The crux of the issue lies in the intersection of climate change and disease, whereby shifts in environmental conditions promote the rapid spread of infectious pathogens.

Climate change affects the spread of diseases not only through direct mechanisms, such as impacts on mosquito life cycles, but also indirectly, altering the ways people and other species interact in ways that can lead to novel transmission patterns.” – NCA5

  1. Vector-borne diseases: Higher temperatures increase the range and lifespan of disease-carrying vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks, leading to greater transmission of diseases, including dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria.
  2. Waterborne diseases: Rising sea levels and water temperatures create favorable conditions for bacteria, such as Vibrio species, contributing to the spread of waterborne illnesses like cholera and other diarrheal diseases.
  3. Foodborne diseases: Changes in precipitation patterns and temperatures affect food production systems, which can facilitate the spread of foodborne pathogens (such as Salmonella and E. coli) and increase the risk of outbreaks.

In conclusion, both the Lancet Countdown and NCA5 reports emphasize the critical link between climate change and the spread of infectious diseases.

Taking into account the potentially devastating health effects, policymakers, researchers, and healthcare professionals need to come together and develop adaptive strategies to tackle the interplay between climate change and disease. By doing so, we can create a safer future and protect human health in an increasingly uncertain world.

Air Quality Degradation: Breathing in the Problem

The effects of climate change on air quality constitute a substantial health risk, as noted by the NCA5, with polluted air contributing to various respiratory, neurological, and cardiovascular diseases.

The healthcare system is increasingly tasked with addressing these emergent health issues caused by deteriorating air quality and emission-related health problems.

In this section, we will explore the linkages between air pollution and respiratory diseases and the health risks from wildfires and industrial emissions.

air quality and health

Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases

Air pollution exacerbates respiratory diseases, ultimately raising pulmonary disease rates. Poor air quality intensifies the rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), placing a substantial strain on healthcare services and affecting patient well-being.

The following table details some of the most common respiratory diseases and their potential associations with air pollution.

Respiratory DiseaseDescriptionAssociation with Air Pollution
AsthmaA chronic, long-term lung disorder characterized by inflammation and swelling of the airways, causing periodic episodes of wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing.Air pollution can aggravate existing asthma symptoms, increase the frequency and intensity of asthma attacks, and may contribute to the development of asthma in children.
COPDA group of progressive lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, obstruct airflow, making it difficult to breathe. COPD often results in severe, chronic lung damage.Exposure to air pollution may worsen COPD symptoms, increase the risk of hospitalization, and reduce overall lung function.
Lung CancerA malignant tumor in the lung originates from cells lining the bronchial tubes and alveoli.Air pollution, particularly fine particulate matter and exposure to carcinogens from vehicle exhaust and industrial emissions, may increase the risk of lung cancer.

Health Risks from Wildfires and Industrial Emissions

The NCA5 emphasizes the health risks from increased wildfire frequency and industrial emissions, leading to exposure to harmful particles and gases. These health risks are coupled with the surge in extreme climate events, amplifying the detrimental effects on air quality and posing unanticipated health problems.

Wildfire smoke, for example, contains hazardous levels of particulates and toxic gases, like carbon monoxide and ozone. These can cause respiratory problems, eye irritation, and aggravate pre-existing heart and lung conditions.

“Exposure to wildfire smoke has critical impacts on human health, and more frequent wildfire events mean that more people are affected by harmful smoke exposure.” – NCA5

Furthermore, industrial emissions from factories, power plants, and other sources contribute to poor air quality, significantly impacting human health and the environment.

Long-term exposure to industrial pollutants can lead to chronic health issues, such as heart and lung diseases, and ultimately reduce overall life expectancy.

To mitigate the effects of climate change on air quality, it is essential to tackle emissions from diverse sources, like wildfires, industrial emissions, and other human activities.

Investing in research, policymaking, and collaboration across multiple sectors can significantly improve the situation and protect global health and environmental sustainability.

Vulnerable Populations: Disproportionate Effects of Climate Change

As the health impacts of climate change continue to escalate, some communities are more vulnerable than others. Both the Fifth National Climate Assessment (NCA5) and the Lancet Countdown report emphasize that particularly vulnerable populations, such as Indigenous and other People of Color (BIPOC) communities, face the brunt of climate change’s health consequences.

Alongside these groups, those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged also experience a heightened vulnerability to the health risks posed by climate change.

These vulnerable populations often bear the brunt of climate change-induced health disparities due to a variety of factors, including increased disease burden, limited access to healthcare services, social determinants of health such as poverty and inequality, and heightened exposure to environmental hazards.

Every segment of society is affected by climate change, but disproportionately, it is vulnerable populations who bear the heaviest load.
– NCA5

For example, a study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics found that minority children are more likely to be exposed to air pollution than their non-Hispanic white counterparts.

Similarly, according to the Lancet Countdown report, BIPOC communities are often located in proximity to sources of air pollution and industrial emissions, putting residents at greater risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

vulnerable populations and climate change health effects

To better understand and address the health inequities experienced by these vulnerable populations due to climate change, efforts must be made to promote health equity and ensure access to responsive healthcare services. Some measures that can help bridge the gap include:

  1. Investing in comprehensive and culturally tailored public health programs, designed with input from affected communities.
  2. Developing strategies to mitigate climate-related health risks in disadvantaged communities, such as better urban planning to reduce exposure to air pollution and flood risks,.
  3. Strengthening healthcare infrastructure and services to ensure access to quality care for all, regardless of location or socioeconomic status.

In sum, addressing the disproportionate effects of climate change on vulnerable populations is an essential step towards achieving health equity.

By understanding and taking into account the specific needs of these communities when designing public health policies, we can foster a more inclusive and resilient healthcare system for all.


As we face increasingly severe climate change effects, the health impacts are felt across the globe, particularly by vulnerable populations. Recognizing the urgency, experts and researchers are calling for immediate action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and enable healthcare facilities to adapt to these emerging threats.

The NCA5 and the Lancet Countdown report both emphasize the risks to global health and environmental health associated with climate change, such as infectious diseases, respiratory illnesses, mental health challenges, and disproportionate effects on marginalized communities.

While the financial costs of tackling climate change are significant, the human cost in terms of well-being and lives lost is far more concerning.

By implementing effective, culturally appropriate adaptation strategies, we can work to improve health equity and ensure a more resilient healthcare delivery for all people, regardless of their background or socioeconomic status.

This would entail reducing greenhouse gas emissions, investing in innovative solutions, and educating the public to be more proactive in combating climate change.

Ultimately, we must address the current health crisis exacerbated by climate change with urgency and commitment. This involves not only prioritizing global health and environmental health but also considering the less apparent impacts, such as those on mental health and marginalized communities.

The time to act is now; every action we take contributes to a healthier, more sustainable future for all.


What are the health impacts of climate change?

The health impacts of climate change include increased heat-related morbidity and mortality, the expansion of infectious diseases, poor air quality, negative pregnancy outcomes, and pulmonary, neurological, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as mental health issues.

How do extreme weather events affect public health?

Extreme weather events pose health threats such as heat-related deathswater-related illnesses, and mental health challenges. They also disrupt health care services and can lead to increased instances of post-traumatic stress disorder.

How are infectious diseases related to climate change?

Climate change creates environmental conditions that facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, such as warmer seas expanding suitable habitats for Vibrio bacteria and altered climatic conditions accelerating the transmission of vector-borne diseases like dengue.

How does air quality degradation affect health?

Degraded air quality can lead to respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and aggravate cardiovascular and neurological conditions. Health risks from wildfires and industrial emissions also contribute to the detrimental effects of poor air quality on health.

What strategies can help address the health impacts of climate change?

Measures such as mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, bolstering healthcare facilities, and implementing culturally appropriate adaptation strategies can improve health equity and ensure resilient healthcare delivery amidst the growing health crises of climate change.